Tribal Communities of Malkangiri District

Tribal Communities of Malkangiri District

In tribal district of Malkangiri mainly there live 10 kinds of tribes such as Koyas, Paraja, Dharua or Durua, Matia, Bhumia, Bonda, Kandh, Gadaba, Halwa and Didayee.

The Bondas:

The Bondas known themselves as Remo(men) are a small tribe of the type now often called Austro-Asiatic country is the wild and mountainnous region north-west of Machakunda river, and here they have preserved themselves comparatively unaffected by the march of civilisation. Bondas Indeed, by plainsmen and officials, the Bondas are regarded as entirely savage, almost as the classic savage type. The strange dress and appearance of their unfamilier tounge they speak a different Astro-Asiatic language. The inaccessibility of their abode seperate them from other tribes of the district The origin and affiliations of the Bondas are obscure, but one may accept the possiblility that they are members of a group of Austro-Asiatic tribes which at some remote date took shelter in the wild Jeypore hills. There is every reason to suppose that the Bondas have changed very little during their long history and in them one can have a change of studying a type of character and it’s material expression that may be millennia old. The bondas have been enlisted as a Scheduled Tribes.

The Koyas:

The Koya are a tribe inhabiting the hills in the north of the Godaviri district and are also found in Malkangiri district. They are said to belong to the great Gond family. The Koyas have a tradition that about two hundred years ago they were driven from the plateau in the Baster countary by famine and disputes. The Koyas are a Scheduled Tribes. Koyas are found in Kalimela, Podia, Malkangiri and Korukonda area of Malkangiri District. Koyas are the largest in population.

The Bhumiya:

Bhumias of Malkangiri District are also generally found in un-divided Koraput, Phulbani, Gangam and Sundergarh districts of Orissa. After Koyas,this tribes occupies the second position in population. The head of the village is called “Mukhia”. One “Bhattanaik” is for 20 number of villages.

The Paraja:

The Porajas or Parajas are the hill cultivators found in the district of Ganjam and undivided Koraput. There are seven classes of these Parajas, which differ from each other in points of language, customs and traditions.The Parajas seem to have been inhabiting this country from about the second century of the Christian era.

The Kandha:

Kandhas are to be found throughout Orissa and mostly in the districts of Ganjam, Baudh, Kandhamal, Kalahandi and parts of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts.In Malkangiri these people are called “Deshia Kandha”. These Deshia Kandha like group life. There are 58 subdivisions of Kandhas. The list includes many names of other castes, a fact, which must must be in part ascribed to the impossiblilty of distingushing the true Kandhas from persons returned as Khondavandhu, Kondalu, Kotuvandlu and are applicable to all the hill tribes.

The Gadaba:

The Gadava are a primitive tribe classified as mundari or Kolarian on linguistic grounds. The word Gadava, Mitchell states, signifies a person who carries loads on his shoulders. The tribe call themselves Guthan. They speak a mundari dialect, called Gadava after tribal name and are one of the two-mundari tribes found so far south as Visakhapatnam.

The Matia:

Including Malkangiri Matias live in Dhenkanal, Bolangir and Kalahandi districts of Orissa. Matias were cloth and live a simple life. They cultivate Maize, tabbaco leaf and vegetables. In Malkangiri Matias are treated as low amoung the tribes.

The Dharua:

Dharua are found in the block of Korukonda of this district. Also these people are seen in the boarding district of Madhaya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. Dharua are also called as Durua. This tribe has got their own language, culture and traditions.

The Holuva:

The pentiyas call themselves Holuva. Numbers of them migrated thither from Bastar. Their language is holuva, which is easily understood by those who speak Oriya. They have enlisted as S.T. Holuva are found in the block of Korukonda of this district. Also these people are seen in the boarding district of Madhaya Pradesh and Chattisgarh. Like Dharua this tribal people have their own language, culture and traditions. They are quite disipleaned and maintains peace and harmoney in their life.

The Didayi:

Didayees are the important tribal race. These people have rich heritage. They said to be the progency of Bondas. Thurston holds the view that the Didayis are part of the Paraja tribe. Dr. Elwin quoting a Bonda myth says “The eldest brother was a Bhoi Gadava, the next an Asur Gadava and the remaining ten Kondo, Bondo, Didayi etc.”.

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